Java 9 Features – Changes to Optional

java, java 9, technology


In Java 8, a new class named Optional was introduced. Or rather in the word-style of Douglas Adams, “in the beginning null was created. This made a lot of people angry and was widely regarded as a bad move“. Optional was introduced to alleviate some of that anger.

Optional relieved developers of the grief of null checks and the “fun” of a NullPointerException popping up when failing to null check.

In Java 8, the Optional already had very useful methods:

  • of – Wrap the non-null value into an Optional.
  • ofNullable – Wrap and return an Optional of the current value, if current value is null, return Optional.empty()
  • isPresent – Checks and returns a boolean indicating the presence of a non-null value in the Optional.
  • ifPresent – Checks and invokes the specified Consumer instance upon the presence of a non-null value in the Optional.
  • get – Fetch the value in the Optional if it is not null, else throw a NoSuchElementException
  • orElse – Fetch the value in the Optional if it is not null, else return the other element passed in.
  • orElseGet – Fetch the value in the Optional if it is not null, else return invoke the other Supplier to fetch an element instead.
  • orElseThrow – Fetch the value in the Optional if it is not null, else throw the passed in Exception.
  • filter – If the value exists, test the filtering Predicate on it and if true return result wrapped in an Optional, else return Optional.empty().
  • map – If the value exists, apply the mapping Function to it and return any non-null result wrapped in an Optional, else return Optional.empty().
  • flatMap – If the value exists, apply the Optional-bearing mapping Function to it and return any non-null result wrapped in an Optional, else return Optional.empty().

Java 9 changes

  • ifPresentOrElse – Checks and returns a boolean indicating the presence of a non-null value in the Optional, or else, invokes the Runnable action.
  • or – Wrap and return an Optional of the current value if not null; if current value is null, return Optional by invoking the specified Supplier
  • stream – Returns a sequential stream containing only the value, if the value is non-null.


Consider a situation where the code is to either run a Consumer if the value exists or else run a different action. This is not possible in the Java 8 Optional behavior. Optional in Java 8 provides an orElse or an orElseGet method, both of which actually return an unwrapped value, rather than act as an execution block.

Source at:

Pre-Java 8 :

if(preference != null) { 
} else {

In Java 8 :

if(optionalPreference.isPresent()) { 
} else {


// orElseGet returns a non-optional value
// it cannot be used to simply execute an action.
Preference p = optionalPreference.orElseGet(callAbsenceSupplier());

In Java 9 :



Per the Java 8 API, both the orElse and the orElseGet do not return an Optional, rather return the unwrapped value. It is possible that such a value is null. The or method is introduced as a means to execute a supplier on absence of an unwrapped value in the container, and returns an Optional, rather than the unwrapped value.

Source at:

Pre-Java 8 :

Preference preference = findPreference(name); 
if(preference == null) {
    preference = createPreference(name, description);
// preference can still be null !!!

In Java 8 :

Preference preference = 
            .orElseGet(getPreferenceSupplier(name, description));
// preference can still be null !!!

In Java 9 :

Optional optionalPreference = 
            .or(getOptionalPreferenceSupplier(name, description));
// optional preference, so, protected from being null !!!


Given a situation where a stream or collection of Optionals exist, and we need to extract values from each, if they contain non-null values. Optional::stream returns a stream with a single non-null value if the Optional has a non-null value, or returns an empty stream otherwise.

Source at:

Pre-Java 8 :

List preferences = new ArrayList();
for (String preferenceName : PREFERENCE_NAMES) {
    Preference aPreference = findPreference(preferenceName);
    if (aPreference != null) {

In Java 8 :

List preferences =
                .map(preferenceName -> findOptionalPreference(preferenceName))

In Java 9 :

List preferences =
                .map(preferenceName -> findOptionalPreference(preferenceName))

That’s a wrap on the Optional changes in Java 9. Hope this post was helpful.

Java 9 Features – Private Interface Methods

java, java 9, technology


A blog on Java 9 changes for interfaces.

Evolution of interfaces in Java:

Until Java 7, all versions of Java maintained the same set of features for interfaces. Interfaces can

Interfaces contained method signatures and were useful for storing public constants. Since then, constants have remained a staple of the interface. Recent changes have been more focused on methods.

Java 7

  • abstract methods – Method signatures as contracts that had to be implemented by the class that implemented the interface.

Java 8

  • default methods – Methods with an implementation in the interface, providing an option to the implementing class to override.

    This change allowed for extension and growth of existing APIs without major refactoring and without harming backward-compatibility. Best example of this is the Java 8 collection framework that introduced new features on the root interfaces without having to make significant changes to any of the implementations.

    See for sort(...) or spliterator() or replaceAll(...).

  • static methods – Methods with the static modifier with an implementation, which thus belong to the interface.

    These methods cannot be overwritten in implementing classes. Adding static methods allows the interface to control some behavior without allowing for an implementation to alter such behavior.

    See for comparingByKey() or comparingByValue().

Java 9

  • private methods – Methods with implementation in the interface that remain private to the interface alone.

    These methods are useful from an encapsulation perspective to hold some logic that the implementations should not override.

    While there is no concrete example in the JDK API that I could immediately find, there are several existing interfaces which have workarounds for encapsulating private methods via private inner classes. Such workarounds can be circumvented with private methods.

Java support in interfaces

  Java 7 Java 8 Java 9
abstract methods
default methods
public static methods
private methods
private static methods

Modifier combinations in Java 9

Combination Comment
[public] (naturally abstract) supported
[public] default supported
[public] static supported
private supported
private static supported
private abstract compile-time error
private default compile-time error

Java 8 Date Time API – A Kata

java, java 8, technology


This post is an extract of a Code Kata presentation I had hosted back in November 2015. Java 8 Date Time API was relatively new to many of the attendees.

This Kata-based style of teaching includes sharing a set of failing / non-functional JUnit tests with TODO comments indicating actions that need to be taken to resolve/pass the JUnit tests. Solving the JUnit tests repeatedly helps developers gain muscle-memory into using the feature (similar to the karate kata).

Link to the code kata is on Github, located at the bottom of the post.

Background: Why a new API

First, some background on why there was a need to create a new API.

Issues with java.util.Date


  • is mutable-only – Date instances are not immutable.
  • has concurrency problems – Date instances are not thread-safe.
  • has incorrect naming – Date is not a “date” but a “timestamp”.
  • lacks convention – Days start with 1, months with 0 and years with 1900.
  • lacks fluency – Cannot create durations (a quarter, 5 minutes) OR combos(year+month, date without seconds) etc.

Additional observations about the pre-Java 8 Date API

  • System.currentTimeInMillis() is not accurate and can return same value for multiple sequential calls.
  • java.util.Date vs. java.sql.Date – SQL flavor is only a DATE with no time.
  • java.sql.Timestamp – SQL flavor replicating java.util.Date but additionally storing nanoseconds.

Issues with java.util.Calendar


  • lacks clarity – Mix of dates and times.
  • has confusing timezone support – Not very easy to switch timezones, offsets etc.
  • has severe formatting hurdlesSimpleDateFormat and Calendar do not interoperate well.
  • presents extension hardships – New calendar systems are created by extending Calendar (therefore all it’s problems).

“Calendar is the Ravenous Bugblatter Beast of Traal for Date APIs” – Chandra Guntur (circa 2000).

What was proposed to fix this?

JSR-310: Date and Time API
Excerpts from JSR-310 (

  • “The main goal is to build upon the lessons learned from the first two APIs (Date and Calendar) in Java SE, providing a more advanced and comprehensive model for date and time manipulation.”
  • “The new API will be targeted at all applications needing a data model for dates and times. This model will go beyond classes to replace Date and Calendar, to include representations of date without time, time without date, durations and intervals.
  • “The new API will also tackle related date and time issues. These include formatting and parsing, taking into account the ISO8601 standard and its implementations, such as XML.”
  • “The final goal of the new API is to be simple to use. The API will need to contain some powerful features, but these must not be allowed to obscure the standard use cases. Part of being easy to use includes interaction with the existing Date and Calendar classes …”

Origins of the JSR-310

Java 8 Date Time API

The Java classes in lavender below are all linked to the JDK 8 API. Please feel free to click.

Date Time Classes

Dates and Times: Simple Date and Time ‘containers’

  • Instant stores a numeric timestamp from Java epoch, + nanoseconds.
  • LocalDate stores a date without a time portion (calendar date).
  • LocalTime stores a time without a date portion (wall clock).
  • LocalDateTime stores a date and time (LocalDate + Local Time).
  • ZonedDateTime stores a date and time with a time-zone.
  • OffsetTime stores a time and offset from UTC without a date.
  • OffsetDateTime stores a date with time and offset from UTC.

Ranges and Partials: Spans and ranges of temporality

  • Duration models time in nanoseconds for time intervals. (e.g. 5 mins)
  • Period models amount of time in years, months and/or days. (e.g. 2 Days)
  • Month stores a month on its own. (e.g. MARCH)
  • MonthDay stores a month and day without a year or time (e.g. date of birth)
  • Year stores a year on its own. (e.g. 2015)
  • YearMonth stores a year and month without a day or time. (e.g. credit card expiry)
  • DayOfWeek stores a day-of-week on its own. (e.g. WEDNESDAY)

Chronology: A calendar system to organize and identify dates

  • Chronology is a factory to create or fetch pre-built calendar systems.
    Default is IsoChronology (e.g. ThaiBuddhistChronology).
  • ChronoLocalDate stores a date without a time in an arbitrary chronology.
  • ChronoLocalDateTime stores a date and time in an arbitrary chronology.
  • ChronoZonedDateTime stores a date, time and timezone in an arbitrary chronology.
  • ChronoPeriod models a span on days/time for use in an arbitrary chronology.
  • Era stores a timeline [typically two per Chronology, but some have more eras].

Date Time Common API – Reference Table

Date and Time

Type Y M D H m S(n) Z ZId toString
Instant 1999-01-12T12:00:00.747Z
LocalDate 1999-01-12
LocalTime 12:00:00.747
LocalDateTime 1999-01-12T12:00:00.747
ZonedDateTime 1999-01-12T12:00:00.747-05:00 [America/New_York]
OffsetTime 12:00:00.747-05:00
OffsetDateTime 1999-01-12T12:00:00.747-05:00


Type Y M D H m S(n) Z ZId toString
Duration P22H
Period P15D


Type Y M D H m S(n) Z ZId toString
MonthDay -01-12
Year 1999
YearMonth 1999-01

Fluency and Symmetry in the new Date Time API

The Java 8 Date Time API introduces a certain symmetry in operations that make for a pleasant developer experience. Below is a list of prefixes for methods across the API that perform in a similar pattern where encountered.

  • of {static factory method prefix} – Factory method to obtain an instance with provided parameters – validates and builds with no conversion.example usage: LocalDate.of(...) or Instant.ofEpochSecond(...)
  • from {static factory method prefix} – Factory method to obtain an instance with provided parameters – validates, converts and builds.example usage: LocalDateTime.from(...) or OffsetTime.from(...)
  • parse {static factory method prefix} – Factory method to obtain an instance with provided CharSequence parameters, by parsing the content.example usage: LocalDate.parse(...) or OffsetDateTime.parse(...)
  • format {instance method prefix} – Formats the instance with provided formatter.example usage: localDate.format(formatter)
  • get {instance method prefix} – Return part of the state of the target temporal object.example usage: localDate.getDayOfWeek()
  • is {instance method prefix} – Queries a part of the state of the target temporal objectexample usage: localTime.isAfter(...)
  • with {instance method prefix} – Returns a copy of the immutable temporal object with a portion altered. Alternate for a set operation.example usage: offsetTime.withHour(...)
  • plus {instance method prefix} – Return a copy of the temporal object with an added time.example usage: localDate.plusWeeks(...)
  • minus {instance method prefix} – Return a copy of the temporal object with subtracted time.example usage: localTime.minusSeconds(...)
  • to {instance method prefix} – Convert the temporal object into a new temporal object of another type.example usage: localDateTime.toLocalDate(...)
  • at {instance method prefix} – Combine the temporal object into a new temporal object with supplied parameters.example usage: localDate.atTime(...)


The Code for the Kata is located at:

Your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to:

  1. setup the kata using your favorite IDE
  2. launch each JUnit test (Exercise1Test through Exercise5Test) and fix the tests, so all execute as instructed in the TODO above any commented lines.
  3. repeat as often as necessary to build muscle memory of using the awesome Date Time API

There are solutions, but looking at solutions may limit your learning different ways of solving the same problem.

Link to solutions:

I hope you found this post fun!

Happy coding!